cypher

Cycles within Cycles

Underlying the very common metaphor LIFE IS A JOURNEY is one particular image schema, that of the Path. Life has an initial state, a desired final state, and consists of a sequence of action in which the person progresses from the former to the latter. This schema is described in detail by Mark Johnson in his 1987 book The Body in the Mind, who writes that it “is (a) pervasive in experience, (b) well-understood because it is pervasive, (c) well-structured, (d) simply structured.” We have all had direct experience of Path, even when we were babies crawling toward something that caught our eyes. This allows us to develop a conceptual metaphor that is built on this image schema: LIFE IS A JOURNEY, which you can see broken down for you on the MetaNet Metaphor Wiki. This representation doesn’t emphasize how essential the Path image schema is, but everything there on that page is consistent with that. In this formulation of the metaphor, your main life goal is the overall destination of the journey. Your short-term goals are stops along the way. Life companions are companions on the journey, and so on.

The MetaNet Metaphor Wiki doesn’t yet have an entry for LIFE IS A FREESTYLE, the metaphor we are developing here. Before we get to filling in each of the specific mappings, we should ask what image schema is the basis for LIFE IS A FREESTYLE. Let me throw this out there: Perhaps it’s not Path, but another very pervasive image schema that Johnson discusses, Cycle. He writes, “a cycle is a temporal circle. The cycle begins with some initial state, proceeds through a sequence of connected events, and ends where it began, to start anew the recurring cyclic pattern.” The seasons, the week, and the day are examples of course, but also: “We come into existence as the culmination of a reproductive cycle … We experience our world and everything in it as embedded within cyclical processes.” Johnson also notes that cycles are not simple circles, but have patterns of “build-up and release.”

It’s no accident that freestyling often occurs in a spatial circle, a cypher, which supports temporal cycles within temporal cycles, some overlapping. A rapper jumps in to begin an improvisational process, not heading toward a grand goal but repeating the fine-grained cycles of bars and rhymes and reveling in them for a while. Then a higher-level cycle is complete as she passes the popcorn to someone else who is ready to spit. Some beats are being produced, sometimes by beat boxers whose rhythmic cycles are the same as the rappers, sometimes by a playlist that proceeds on its own way. The point is not to have a far-off destination, but to get in sync with others in the circle and better appreciate the many cycles of life — I think! You tell me. Here’s the mic.

Variables

The art of freestyle comes in many forms, some being more free form than others. A common misconception of the average rap listener is what they define “freestyle” to be, some assume that it can only be “off the top” meaning the rapper is coming up with words, subject matter, flows and delivery on the spot with no prior structure to the piece. This leads the listeners to skew the scale in terms of what they consider to be a good freestyle, often mistaking written verses as off the top. Although freestyling off the top is considered to be the highest form of freestyle, kicking a written verse still comes with its challenges and shouldn’t be discredited for what it is.

In a controlled situation for example, a radio show freestyle, the rapper is usually aware that they will be asked to perform the feat, they might even be aware of the exact beat or instrumental that they’ll be rapping on. This allows the rapper to prepare beforehand for the variables he or she has control over. However, this in itself comes with its own set of obstacles, the rapper has to adjust his performance based on the microphone and space being performed in, there also may be added pressure if the show is live on the air. Rather than being comfortable at home or in the studio with numerous takes the rapper is now facing a constraint that is more so make it or break it. In the classic situation of a “cypher” which is where a group of rappers freestyle, the pressure is usually exerted by the other rappers, whether or not it’s considered to be for fun, the competitive nature of rap and freestyle pushes the rappers to do their best to outwit and outdo the rest of the competition. This adds the variable for sudden change in the mix, for instance, the rapper could have a number of verses floating around in the back of their head, and based on the prior verses rapped, the rapper can adjust and choose to rap a different verse than he had already planned for.

Freestyling is the art of adaptation and in every instance of freestyle, the ability to adjust to circumstances and variables in the moment is a fundamental necessity that every person must deem crucial to the success of their performance.

[Photo of the man with the mic by Harry Swales on Unsplash, thank you!]